Tag Archives: Stalin

JAMALA

jamala

Congratulations on winning the 2016 Eurovision Song Contest. I am very pleased for you. Singing about your grandmother is not political, it can never be political in your perspective. If Russia thinks that it is political, they are responsible, it was Stalin who made it political by deporting your family. Like so many in this position you have grown up with the benefits and hardships of a mixed background, a Crimean Tatar father, an Armenian mother and early years spent in Kyrgyzstan. May you soon return to your home in Crimea and enjoy your success.

Our families have a common thread. I am thinking of your great aunt who died during deportation. Please remember my grandfather, who lies in the Forest of Bykownia, next time you are in Kiev.

POLITICAL MIGRATIONS ON POLISH TERRITORIES (1939-1950)

Cover photoThis recent book by Piotr Eberhardt was first published by The Polish Academy of Sciences in 2010 and then translated to English the next year. It is an in depth review of lately available records by a man who was himself deported, although he doesn’t say whether east or west.

The chapter concerning those deported east from Kresy has a concise overview of categories, destinations and numbers. Due to my family history I notice that those on the Ukrainian Katyn list and murdered at Bykownia are not included with the other Katyn sites. I will try and ask why not.

The numbers deported make sense, but may not please those who hold to the previously higher post war estimates. I am also pleased to discover that the numbers known to have died (at 12% if I understand the figures correctly) are less than I had guessed, although I realize that this is not the total number. He does give 3 examples of horrifically high death rates within this total

  • In February 1940 all the Poles in a train (about 1,050 persons) and some of the Soviet guard froze to death while stuck in snow drifts on the Kotlas-Vorkuta line.
  • Of 10,000 Poles transported to the Kolyma camps only 171 individuals survived.
  • Of 3,000 sent to Chukotka, nobody returned.

With 15 more chapters on migrations including to the German Reich; the Jewish, Ukrainian and Belarusian populations, plus repatriations, there is something for everyone who has an interest in the subject. The book is available free online in English from http://rcin.org.pl/igipz/dlibra/docmetadata?id=15652&from=publication

DEPORTATIONS FROM POLAND – DISPUTE OVER NUMBERS.

Polish deportations

from Kresy-Siberia.org

From September 1939 – July 1941 Stalin and his Soviet administration controlled Kresy, the eastern borderlands of Poland. They used this period to deport many families to Siberia and Kazakhstan, with educated and upper class citizens targeted to pre-empt any opposition to their dictatorial rule. The deportations were based on four mass arrests, but the reported numbers arrested have varied widely over the years.

10th February 1940. Osadniks (ex military given land to farm on leaving the army), foresters and their families were sent to gulags and forest camps, mostly in the north of Siberia. This group had the highest death rate due to the unexpected night arrest in the middle of winter.

13th April 1940. Mostly women and children were arrested as “dangerous social elements” and sent to forced labour on the kolkhozy of Kazakhstan. These were mainly the families of the 22,500 men murdered in the Katyn Forest massacre. As Urszula says, ‘It appeared that the Russians had arrested the husbands of nearly all the women in the wagon.’ My father aged 14 was one of these deportees along with his younger sister.

Urszula writes that she was arrested on the 13th Aprilin Rawa Ruska, changed trains in Lwow on the next day, and arrived at Alga 13 days later. Karta lists 49 trains leaving eastern Poland 13-20 April 1940. The one that has the closest match is listed as having left Rawa on the 20th. I cannot explain the discrepancy, but a single train from Rawa to Alga is not possible because of the change of track width in Lwow. This train carried 1333 deportees, slightly above the average number.

June/July 1940. Refugees who had escaped from German occupied western Poland, including many Jews, and were now living in the Kresy.

June 1941. Sent from the Lithuanian SSR to gulags and work camps.

Kresy-Siberia Virtual Museum*

Victims of Repression 2009**

10 Feb 1940

220,000

140,000

13 Apr 1940

320,000

61,000

Jun/Jul 1940

240,000

78,000

Jun 1941

200,000

41,000

TOTALS

980,000

320,000

It is important to qualify that there is documentation of 320,000 deportees but we don’t know the full number because some archives remain closed and some documents no longer exist.

* Based on figures previously used by the Polish Government

** The publication of Institute of National Remembrance “Poland from 1939 to 1945. The Personal Losses and Victims of Repression under Two Occupations “, edited by Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota, Warsaw, 2009. Based on research of NKVD train records by Dr. Alexander Guryanov and published by Karta. Some observers claim that the NKVD records are incomplete.

These four mass deportations by no means account for all the hundreds of thousands of Poles deported and murdered, the total is probably over a million. The death rates are estimated at 16-50%,  and maybe a quarter escaped from the USSR, mostly with General Anders.